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Stereotactic Surgery Procedures, Stereotactic Surgery, Stereotactic Surgery India, Stereotactic

Stereotactic Neurosurgery is used to facilitate the management of abnormal movements, therefore dealing with the symptoms and not the disease itself. Depending on the side and part of the body that is aimed to improve, the neurosurgeon knows which spot in the brain has to be altered to achieve it; that is the TARGET.

This is a three dimensional technique for Neurosurgery. It consists in taking some X-rays (or other imaging aid) , based in which a structure within the brain (nucleus) is located and mapped. Once this is done, the coordinates are moved to a stereotactic frame which will guide an electrode to the exact location.


Pallidotomy, thalamotomy and DBS are safe procedures. There is less than a 1 percent incidence of intracranial bleeding and infection in our stereotactic neurosurgery patients. The risk of bleeding is probably lower in DBS than in pallidotomy or thalamotomy.

Thalamotomy and pallidotomy both carry a small risk of developing weakness of facial muscles, the arm or the leg on the side opposite the surgery. There is also a small risk of stroke occurring near the treated brain area within the first two months after the operation. This risk is much lower with DBS.

Thalamotomy has a small risk of speech impairment or difficulty swallowing. This risk may be higher if the procedure is done on both sides of the brain. This risk is much lower in DBS.
Pallidotomy carries a small risk of producing a blind spot in the visual field. If this complication develops in the right side of the visual field (when surgery is performed on the left side), it may make reading difficult. We have never experienced this complication at UVA, but it has been reported in other centers performing pallidotomies.

What Equipment Is Used ?

There are three basic kinds of stereotactic radiosurgery equipment, each of which uses different instruments and sources of radiation:

  • The Gamma Knife® , which uses 192 or 201 beams of highly focused gamma rays all aiming at the target region. The Gamma Knife is ideal for treating small to medium size lesions.

  • Linear accelerator (LINAC) machines, prevalent throughout the world, deliver high-energy x-rays, also known as photons. The linear accelerator can perform radiosurgery on larger tumors in a single session or during multiple sessions, which is called fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. Multiple manufacturers make this type of machine, which have brand names such as Novalis Tx™, XKnife™, and CyberKnife®.

  • Proton beam or heavy-charged-particle radiosurgery is in limited use in North America, though the number of centers offering proton therapy has increased dramatically in the last several years.

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