Nephrology and Urology

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What is HIV/AIDS ?

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a replicating virus or retrovirus that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIDS is a health condition that causes the immune system to fail, which leads to a number of life-threatening infections and complications. HIV is transmitted when infected body fluid such as blood, semen, vaginal fluid and breast milk come into contact with a mucous membrane or the bloodstream of another person. While HIV and AIDS medicines help slow the progression of the virus, there is no cure for HIV or AIDS.

Treatment For Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

HIV CKD Treatment Nephrology Surgery, HIV CKD Treatment Nephrology Surgery Hospital Delhi India

HIV-positive patients who have or are at risk for chronic kidney disease should have their treatment tailored to their needs and circumstances. Some treatments for chronic kidney disease include managing phosphorus levels, reducing blood pressure, managing fluid balance and/or antiretroviral therapy.

The six classes of antiretroviral medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration are: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), Protease inhibitors (PIs), Entry inhibitors, Fusion inhibitors and Integrase inhibitors.

  • Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) bind to and disable reverse transcriptase, a protein that HIV needs to make more copies of itself.
  • Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) create faulty versions of building blocks that HIV needs to make more copies of itself. When HIV uses one of these faulty building blocks instead of a normal building block, reproduction of the virus is stalled.
  • Protease inhibitors (PIs) disable protease, a protein that HIV needs to make more copies of itself.
  • Entry inhibitors work by blocking HIV entry into cells.
  • Fusion inhibitors work by blocking HIV entry into cells.
  • Integrase inhibitors disable one of the proteins that HIV uses to insert its viral genetic material into the genetic material of an infected cell.

HIV-positive people with end stage renal disease (ESRD) who are on dialysis may want to consider a kidney transplant. Doctors can help HIV-positive patients with chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease determine a treatment regimen that manages both HIV and kidney disease.

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