Plasma cell neoplasms are diseases in which there are too many plasma cells, or myeloma cells, that are unable to do their usual work in the bone marrow. When this happens there is less room for healthy red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. This condition may cause anemia or easy bleeding, or make it easier to get an infection. The abnormal plasma cells often form tumors in bones or soft tissues of the body. The plasma cells also make an antibody protein, called M protein, that is not needed by the body and does not help fight infection. These antibody proteins build up in the bone marrow and can cause the blood to thicken or can damage the kidneys.
Plasma cell neoplasms can be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer).
There are different types of plasma cell neoplasms and not all of them are cancer. The following types of plasma cell neoplasms are cancer: -
- Multiple myeloma.
DiagnosisAfter multiple myeloma and other plasma cell neoplasms have been diagnosed, tests are done to find out the amount of cancer in the body.
The process used to find out the amount of cancer in the body is called staging. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment.
The following tests and procedures may be used in the staging process:
- X-ray: - An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and onto film, making a picture of areas inside the body.
- MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): - A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body such as the bone marrow. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).
- CT scan (CAT scan): - A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.
- PET scan (positron emission tomography scan): - A procedure to find malignant tumor cells in the body. A small amount of radionuclide glucose (sugar) is injected into a vein. The PET scanner rotates around the body and makes a picture of where glucose is being used in the body. Malignant tumor cells show up brighter in the picture because they are more active and take up more glucose than normal cells do.
- Bone densitometry: - A procedure that uses a special type of x-ray to measure bone loss.
Certain tests may be repeated to see how well the treatment is working.
Symptops & signA doctor should be consulted if any of the following problems occur: -
- Bone pain, often in the back or ribs.
- Bones that break easily.
- Fever for no known reason or frequent infections.
- Easy bruising or bleeding.
- Trouble breathing.
- Weakness of the arms or legs.
- Feeling very tired.
Hypercalcemia may cause the following symptoms: -
- Loss of appetite.
- Nausea or vomiting.
- Feeling thirsty.
- Frequent urination.
- Feeling very tired.
- Muscle weakness.
- Mental confusion or trouble thinking.
standard treatment are used: -
Chemotherapy : - Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping the cells from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy). When chemotherapy is placed directly into the spinal column, an organ, or a body cavity such as the abdomen, the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas (regional chemotherapy). The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.
Other drug therapyCorticosteroid therapy : - Corticosteroids are steroids that have antitumor effects in lymphomas and lymphoid leukemias.
Thalidomide : -Thalidomide is a drug that prevents the growth of new blood vessels into a solid tumor.
Bisphosphonate therapy : - Bisphosphonates are substances that bind to the surface of damaged bones and reduce new bone damage, allowing the bone to rebuild. This will also reduce the amount of calcium released into the blood from bone damage.
High-dose chemotherapy and radiation therapy with stem cell transplant : - This treatment is a way of giving high doses of chemotherapy and radiation therapy and replacing blood-forming cells destroyed by the cancer treatment. Stem cells (immature blood cells) are removed from the blood or bone marrow of the patient or a donor and are frozen and stored. After the chemotherapy and radiation therapy are completed, the stored stem cells are thawed and given back to the patient through an infusion. These reinfused stem cells grow into (and restore) the body's blood cells.
Biologic therapy Biologic therapy is a treatment that uses the patient's immune system to fight cancer. Substances made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the body's natural defenses against cancer. This type of cancer treatment is also called biotherapy or immunotherapy.
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